4 Life Stages of Financial Planning

Many of us know that financial planning is a lifelong process. Our ultimate dream is to achieve a retirement life which we desire. This could mean being debt-free, having a passive stream of income and best of all, pursuing our interest and passion which we might not get to do in our younger days.

Our lifelong financial process can be split into 4 stages. What are the crucial aspects which we should consider at each stage? Read on to find out more.

Stage 1: Young Adult (Aged 20-30)

The young adult is new to the working world and naturally earns a low income. He/she is driven to succeed and increase his earning ability. Being single, there are little or no financial commitments for him/her. Some may have an education loan to pay off after graduation which can be fully redeemed after working for 2 to 3 years.

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This is the best time for you to start some form of wealth accumulation to prepare for retirement as it could be harder to save money in later stages of life when financial commitments increase. With the high risk tolerance at a young age, investing in more equities and mutual funds on a regular basis is recommended.

 

Buying a house is common goal for young couples preparing to get married. Do the math on your liquid finances and CPF savings to find out which type of property best suits your financial ability.

Having a comprehensive insurance portfolio is a must as well for wealth protection. Key insurance components include Hospital & Surgical, Critical Illness and Disability.

Stage 2: Young Family (Aged 30-40)

At this stage, one could be married with or without children. With a moderate income, you would have more financial commitments such as a home loan and a car loan. Retirement planning remains an essential component in your portfolio. Risk tolerance starts to moderate as you are one step closer to retirement. A correct investment mix of equity and fixed income helps you to achieve financial goals easily.

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Being a parent, getting insurance cover for your child prevents you from incurring unnecessary huge medical bills. Saving for your child’s future tertiary education should be your concern too. Another wealth protection area concerns the largest debt that you share with your spouse – home loan. If a spouse passes away, any outstanding loan is left to be paid off by the surviving spouse. Be responsible in financially protecting your loved ones in the event of your passing.

 

Stage 3: Mature Family (Aged 40-50)

Your children are grown up by this stage of your life. Your earning ability is at its highest and naturally your expenses increase as well. You could possibly take up a bigger car loan of home loan, thus increasing your financial commitment.

Child’s education and retirement planning are your main financial objectives for the long term. Therefore, your investments should be diversified in equities and debts instruments according to your age, available time and risk ability.

Stage 4: Pre-retirees or Retirees (Aged 50 and above)

retireesBy now, your home loan would have been fully paid off and your children are no longer dependent on you financially. This means low financial commitment which means your protection needs are its lowest stage. However, health insurance continues to play an important role as you age.

The security of your retirement savings carefully accumulated over your younger days, coupled with regular income, becomes your focus now. For that, investments should be more in fixed income which yields regular income with low risk.

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Manage Your Wealth Like a Football Team

Just like managing a football team, managing your wealth properly requires a good team of players in 3 departments – defence, midfield and forwards.

In a game of football, let’s imagine if we have a team with a great goalkeeper and defenders but without strong forwards, will we be able to win? Well, the best possible result may perhaps be just a draw. In reality, when it comes to managing wealth, many people have made the mistake of being too conservative.

footballA dangerous thought which they have is keeping all of their savings in their bank accounts, assuming it is the most reliable way to make their money grow. However, they have forgotten the fact that bank interest rates can never keep up with the pace of inflation. Over a long period, the savings of these people will diminish in terms of purchasing power.

On another hand, can a football team do without a dependable goalkeeper and defence? The answer is certainly no. When facing the fierce attacks of an opponent, a team with a weak defence will be in shambles and suffer terribly. Similarly, without proper insurance cover to protect our wealth, if any disaster strikes, a rich man can very quickly become a poor man. Therefore, just like managing a football team, managing your wealth properly requires a good team of players in 3 departments – defence, midfield and forwards. With this analogy, let’s look at these 3 departments in wealth management.

1. Defence: Emergency Fund & Insurance

As the saying “Saving for a rainy day” goes, we should aim to keep an emergency fund of 3 to 6 times of our monthly expenses. This sum of cash will come in handy when events like a salary cut or retrenchment happens. For this emergency fund, we can save our money in bank savings accounts, fixed deposits or money market funds.

At the same time, we should also purchase insurance. For instance, hospitalisation insurance covers your medical bills in case of an accident or critical illness. Surgical fees can amount to over tens of thousands of dollars, and treatment for long-term illnesses such as kidney dialysis can cost more than $20,000 annually. With adequate protection, it gives you a peace of mind that unforeseen circumstances are prepared for. To understand your insurance needs, you can refer to an earlier post here.

2. Midfield: Endowment and Moderate Risk Investments for the Mid-Term

A strong midfielder has to be able to support the forwards and help out in defence. You can think of putting your money in investment instruments with moderate risks, such as savings endowment policies and balanced funds which invests in a mix of fixed-income (bonds) and equity, some with a larger portion in bonds. Alternatively, you can set aside a pre-determined amount to invest every month in global funds. This strategy of dollar cost averaging can help your money grow in the mid-term.

3. Forwards: High Yield Investments

With a solid defence and reliable midfield, if you have a surplus of cash and wish to grow it, you can put your money in investments with high returns and high risks. Such investments include real estate, stocks, currencies or sector funds. For those of you who actively keeps an eye on the stock market, you should have a super-sub forward – an opportunity fund. Every crisis comes with an opportunity. Whenever there is a global stock market recession, we are presented with an opportunity to buy stocks at very low prices, like it were the Great Singapore Sale. If you had bought DBS shares in early 2009 when the price was $7 per share, you can sell them off at $16 per share now and earn a huge profit.

Here’s to your financial success by managing your money just like a football team, or for the matter, any other team sports which requires a defence, midfield and forwards.